The invocation to Typhon (lines 180-209) is the crux of the initiation rite into the magical system of PGM IV. 154-285. As we have discussed previously, this is literally the rite of passage that the candidate must complete prior to engaging in the Evocationary Bowl Scrying practices. It is through this initiation that the practitioner gains the spiritual authority necessary to call forth the gods and the spirits of the dead to visible appearance.
In an attempt to fully comprehend the text and to some extent personalize it, I decided to return to the original Greek and translate it myself. This was more of a personal endeavor as the English translation in the Betz edition is very good. However, I did come across some sections and words that I believe could have been translated differently to better capture the intent of the original Greek within the context of the ritual. Moreover, the process of translating the text forced me to examine every single word and has given me a much better understanding of the purpose and structure of the invocation. Many thanks to my friends in the Facebook PGM Study Group who guided me towards some amazing resources and gave great insights regarding the translation from ancient Greek.
The scribe of PGM IV. 154-285, indicates that by means of this rite, the candidate will “attached [them]self to Helios.” This is a rather odd statement given the Typhonian nature of the invocation, but it will make sense later when we delve into the text. The invocation in Greek is as follows (original line breaks indicated by a single pipe ‘|’, unclear letters within square brackets ‘’, nominae magicae in bold):
Κραταιὲ Τυφῶν, τῆς ἄνω | σκηπτουχίας σκηπτοῦχε καὶ δυνάστα, θεὲ θεῶν, | ἄναξ αβεραμενθωου (λὀγος), γνοφεντινάκτα, | βρονταγωγέ, λαιλαπετέ, νυκταράπτα, ψυχ[ρ]ο|θερμοφύσησε, πετρεντιυάκτα, τειχοσεισμο|ποιέ, κοχλαζοκύμων, βυθοταραξοκίνησε, | Ἰωερβήτ αυ ταυϊ μηνι · ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ σύν σοι | τὴν ὅλην οἰκυμένην ἀνασκαλεύσας καὶ ἐξευ|ρὼν τὸν μέγαν Ὀσιριν, ὅν σοι δέσμιον προσή|νεγκα. ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ σύν σοι συμμαχήσας τοῖς θεοῖς |(οἱ δέ · πρὸς τοὺς θεούς)· ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ κλείσας οὐρα|νοῦ δισσὰς πτύχας και κοιμίσας δράκοντα τὸν | ἀθεώρητον, στήσας θάλασσαν, ῥεῖθρα, ποταμῶν | νάματα, ἄχρις οὖ κυριεύσης τῆσδε τῆς σκηπτου|χίας. ὁ σὸς στρατιώτης ὑπὸ θεῶν νενίκημαι, | πρηνὴς ῥέριμμαι μηνίδος εἵνεκεν κενῆς. | ἔγειρον, ἱκετῶ, τὸν σόν, ἱκνοῦμαι, φίλον καὶ μ[ή] | με ῥίψῃς χθονοριφῆ, ἄναξ θεῶν αεμιναεβαρωθερρεθωραβεανιμεα. δυνάμωσον, ἱκετῶ, | δόσ τε μοι ταύτην τὴν χάριν, ἵν᾽, ὅταν τινὰ αὐτῶν | τῶν θεῶν φράσω μολεῖν, ἐμαῖς ἀοιδαῖς θᾷττον | ὀφθῇ μοι μολών. ναϊνε βασαναπτατου | εαπτου μηνωφαεσμη παπτου μηνωφ · | αεσιμη · τραυαπτι · πευχρη · τραυαρα · πτου|μηφ · μουραι · ανχουχαφαπτα · μουρσα · | αραμει · Ἰάω · αθθαραυϊ μηνοκερ · βορο | πτουμηθ · ατ ταυϊ μηνι χαρχαρα · πτου|μαυ · λαλαψα · τραυϊ τραυεψε μαμω | φορτουχα · αεηιο ϊου οηωα · εαϊ αεηι | ωι ιαω αηι αι ιαω.
¤ The Invocation ¤
Mighty Typhon, scepter-bearing almighty power and sovereign, god of gods; Lord
Disturber of the dark, bringer of thunder, sender of storms, lighting flasher of the night! You are the one who exhaled the cold and the heat. Stone-shaker, wall-breaker earth-quaker, boiler of the waters. You are the one who stirs the depths to motion,
IÔERBÊT AU TAUI MÊNI
I am he who searched the entire world to find the great Osiris, whom I brought you bound. I am he who together with you allied with the gods (others say against the gods); I am he who shut heaven’s double door and put to sleep the unseen serpent, who at the edge of you kingdom, stopped the sea, the streams, and the flowing rivers. But, as your soldier, I was defeated by the gods and was cast face down on account of empty wrath. Awaken me, I beseech you, I implore you, friend; do not leave me here cast upon the earth, o lord of gods:
Fill me with power, I beg you, grant me this grace, that whenever I call upon any one of the gods, they come to me swiftly and appear visibly before me.
NAINE BASANAPTATOU EAPTOU MÊNÔPhAESMÊ PAPTOU MÊNÔPh ·
AESIMÊ · TRAUAPTI · PEUChRÊ · TRAUARA · PTOUMÊPh · MOURAI · ANChOUChAPhAPTA ·
MOURSA · ARAMEI · IAÔ · AThThARAUI MÊNOKER · BORO PTOUMÊTh · AT TAUI MÊNI ChARChARA ·
PTOUMAU · LALAPsA · TRAUI TRAUEPsE MAMÔ PhORTOUChA ·
AEÊIO IOY OÊÔA · EAI AEÊI ÔI IAÔ AÊI AI IAÔ
¤ Analysis of the Invocation¤
The voces magicae conveniently divide the invocation into four sections. The first calls upon Typhon by name and defines his magical role in this rite and in the entire magical system of PGM IV 154- 285. Typhon is identified as σκηπτουχίας (‘Scepter-bearing’, or ‘Staff-bearing’), a title indicating a supreme degree of spiritual authority, and an epithet shared only with Apollo in the magical papyri (PGM II. 82, PGM II. 98). To drive the point home, Typhon is identified as θεὲ θεῶν (‘god of gods’).
This understanding of Typhon is unique to the traditions of the PGM. Here he is a deity endowed with the authority and power generally ascribed to the demiurgic godheads such as the Semitic YHVH, Canaanite Baal, or Gnostic IAO . Yet he remains as a manifestation of the primordial volatile and chaotic forces of the universe, having much more in common with the Ophion and Chronos serpents of the Orphic traditions than the Typhon ‘monster’ of the Olympic mythologies. 
Typhon is called forth as ABERAMENThÔOU, an epithet we discussed previously that is used in the PGM and in later gnostic traditions to denote the lord of the waters and master of cosmic forces. The complete palindromic formula is:
This is the first of the voces magicae in the passage and marks the transition into the next stage of the invocation. The magical names Aberamenthôou and Lerthexana also appear together in the Demotic Leiden Papyrus (Col. XXIII.) in a spell calling forth the syncretic Typhon-Set. Additionally, a nearly identical version of this formula occurs in PGM I. 262-347, a spell to invoke Apollo. The name Aberamenthôou is very important within the context of the rite because it now identifies Typhon specifically with the element of water; both metaphorically – as in the cosmic waters of the sky, and literally – as in the waters of the sea. The epithets that follow clearly continue this association.
|γνοφεντινάκτα||‘Disturber of the Dark’||γνοφος – ‘darkness’, “dark”; τινακτως – ‘shaker’, ‘disturber’.|
|βρονταγωγέ||‘Bringer of Thunder’||βρονταω – ‘thunder’ γςγε-‘guide’, ‘leader’, ‘bringer’.|
|λαιλαφετης||‘Sender of Storms’||λαιλαφετης – ‘Storm-Sender’.|
|νυκταράπτα||‘Lighting flasher of the night‘||νυκτανγηεσ – ‘shining at night’; στραπτω- ‘lightnings’ , ‘lighten’, ‘flash’.|
|ψυχροθερμοφύσησε||‘One who exhales the cold and the heat’||ψυχρος – ‘cold’; ψυχροτης -‘coldness’, ‘cold’; θερμος – ‘hot’; θερμοτης – ‘heat’ φυσις – ‘origin’, ‘nature’, ‘powers’; φυσαω – ‘to blow’; φυσησις – ‘blowing upon coals’.|
|πετρεντιυάκτα||‘Stone-shaker’||πετρεν – ‘rocks’, ‘stones’; τινακτως – ‘shaker’, ‘trembler’, ‘agitator’, ‘disturber’.|
|τειχοσεισμοποιέ||‘Wall/Earth-quaker’||τειχος – ‘wall’; σεισμοποιος – ‘causing earthquakes’; σεισμος – ‘shaking’, ‘earthquake’.|
|κοχλαζοκύμων||‘Boiler of the waters’||κοχλαζω – ‘of boiling water’.|
|βυθοταραξοκίνησε||‘one who stirs the depths to motion’||βυθιος – ‘in the deep’; ταραξις – ‘confusion’; ταρακτης -‘disturber’; εκταραξις – ‘agitation’; κινησε – ‘set in motion’, ‘movement’.|
While these can be translated in a myriad of ways, they all retain the common meaning of being directly related to violent and choatic aspects of nature in motion. Specifically, the manifestation of storms and earthquakes. These are generally associated with the olympian Poseidon who – interestingly enough – is entirely absent from the PGM. These attributes also bring to mind the Babylonian storm deity Hadad who we discussed in PGM IV. 154-285: A complete Magical System as one of the first deities associated with the magical practices of Evocationary Bowl Scrying.
Following these epithets of Typhon, the next magical name to be spoken is:
IÔ ERBÊT AU TAUI MÊNI
Ἰω ερβήτ αυ ταυϊ μηνι
IÔ ERBÊT and the cognate IÔ ERBÊTh is a divine name used throughout the PGM in magical formulae associated with Typhon, Set and the syncretized Typhon-Set.  Ἰω, while a name for the moon, is also used in the context of a sudden call, as if saying ‘look’ or ‘hail’, and as such ERBÊT is the operative word. Ερβήτ does not mean anything in Greek; however, in Hebrew הר בית, translates to ‘mountain house.’ Given Typhon’s association to mountains in mythology, and our discussion in PGM IV 154-285: Phylactery of 100 Letters, this deserved a mention. I have not found much regarding AU TAUI MÊNI, other than a reference to an obscure Babylonian deity and the phonetic spelling of the Egyptian words Aw (measure of space/time), tAwy (‘two lands’, i.e. Egypt), and mHn.I (‘O serpent spirit!’) .
It may be interesting to look further into the possible Egyptian phonetic sounds of AU TAUI MÊNI as in the context of this invocation, these voces magicae herald the next stage of the rite that is very clearly influenced by Egyptian cosmology. It is in this segment that the candidate aligns himself with Set as the one who “searched the entire world to find the great Osiris, whom I brought you bound.” Needless to say, this is a reference to the capture and murder of Osiris. What is different here, is that Set is acting on behalf of a greater power, and according to the text this power is the primordial Typhon. While it is well documented that in the Hellenic world Set and Typhon were often synonymous and even syncretized into one as Set-Typhon; the scribe of PGM IV. 154-285 is very clear in distinguishing the primordial “lord of gods”, Typhon, from the anthropomorphic god who performs the deeds associated with Set. In this context, the candidate by self-identifying with Set is thereby becoming a suitable vessel to receive the power of Typhon.
Next, the candidate states that together with Typhon they ‘allied with the gods (others say agains the gods).” The parenthetical contradiction highlights the duality of Set’s role; who according to this papyri was acting in accordance with the gods; a role that has been misunderstood by “others.” The idea is that the murder of Osiris was a necessary act in order to bring further life to the Nile and continue to evolve Egypt from a land of gods, to one of men. This is the principle represented by both Typhon and Set as that fundamental chaotic and destructive force that is essential to the continual motion of nature and the cosmos. Again, I am stressing the importance of motion as I did earlier, because according to this rite the true enemy of man, cosmos and the gods is stasis.
ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ κλείσας οὐρανοῦ δισσὰς πτύχας και κοιμίσας δράκοντα τὸν ἀθεώρητον, στήσας θάλασσαν, ῥεῖθρα, ποταμῶν νάματα, ἄχρις οὖ κυριεύσης τῆσδε τῆς σκηπτουχίας. 
‘”I am he who shut heaven’s double door and put to sleep the unseen serpent, who at the edge of you kingdom, stopped the sea, the streams, and the flowing rivers.”
Δράκοντα τὸν ἀθεώρητον (‘the unseen serpent’) is an epithet of Apep (Apophis) common in the magical literature;  he is the serpent that Set must defeat daily in order to ensure the perpetual motion of the sun and cycles of the universe. Here the candidate is referencing Set’s role in the Egyptian Book of the Dead where he figures as a prominent protector of the solar barque.
According to Spell 111 in the Egyptian Book of the Dead, at midday the course of the sun is threatened by the serpent Apep who in one gulp swallows the waters of the cosmic stream effectively bringing the solar barque to a halt. Set declaring himself “the Great of Magic, son of Nut” defeats the serpent that threatens the death and dissolution of the sun. As a result, Apep regurgitates all that he has swallowed and the cosmic waters continue to flow. This act ensures the that the cosmos will remain in motion for another day and averts the return to the static state of non-existence. 
The lines in the invocation to Typhon perfectly echo this narrative, even in the choice of language – Set “put[s] to sleep” the serpent in the PGM and “close[s] thy eye” in the Book of the Dead. The στήσας (‘stopping’, ‘made to stand’) of the bodies of waters in the invocation describe Apep’s swallowing of the cosmic stream, an act that directly opposes Typhon’s power over the cosmic waters and role of maintaining nature in motion. The temporal synchronicity should not be overlooked as this cosmic battle occurs near noon, when the sun is at its zenith, the same time that the scribe of PGM IV 153-285 indicates that this ritual should take place. It is at this hour, as the sun reaches the apex of its journey and Set defeats the serpent threatening the preservation of daily order, that the candidate through self-identity with Set has effectively “attached [them]self to Helios.”
Yet, ‘on account of empty wrath’ (μηνίδος εἵνεκεν κενῆς), Set was vilified and was ‘cast face down’ (πρηνὴς ῥέριμμαι). It is from this desolate and prostrated position that the candidate petitions Typhon, his ‘friend’ and ‘lord of gods’ to elevate him. The word ἔγειρον is translated in the Betz edition as ‘raise up’; however, it is more commonly used in the context of ‘awakening’, ‘arousal’ and even to be ‘raised from the dead.’ In this sense it is the request for a spiritual awakening and rebirth from the darkness implied by one ‘cast face down’ on the ground and literally experienced by the candidate who is wrapped in a burial shroud and blindfolded during this ritual.
This is followed by the voce magicae:
Like the Aberamenthôou formula, this too is palindromic. Variations of this palindrome appear in three other spells of the PGM (together with the Aberamenthôou formula) and in also in invocations associated with Typhon, Set, or Apollo.  The meaning of this formula eludes me at this moment, I firmly believe that as with the other formulae in this invocation it has either Semitic or Egyptian origins. One can perhaps make out Hebrew words such as אמן (amen, ‘truth’), and ברר (‘bright’, ‘purify’, ‘purge’). More compelling, are the potential Egyptian phonetic representations of ia (‘arise’, ‘ascend’), minA (‘hither’, ‘here’), bA (‘possessing soul’), rW (‘lion’), and tr (‘respect’, ‘pray’, ‘worship’). Αεμιναε being a phonetic spelling of ‘arise/ascend here’ (ia minA) in Egyptian seems quite relevant within the present context.
The text that follows should resonate familiar with those of us who have worked with medieval and renaissance grimoires (as indeed so would the entire structure of the invocation). It is here that the practitioner asks to be empowered so that they may have the authority to call forth the gods and spirits and that they respond and come swiftly and visibly. Presumable after performing the invocation three times (according to the scribe), the practitioner will receive a clear sign that they have been imparted the spiritual authority from the ‘lord of the gods.’
The invocation ends with a voce magicae of forty names. As with the 100-later name, the Egyptian words approximated by the phonetic sounds of the voce magicae are surprisingly quite relevant within the context of the rite. Particularly pA.dw/pt.dw (‘the mountain’, ‘sky mountain’) and the imperative mi (‘come!’), both of which we previously discussed in the context of Typhon’s 100-letter name.  The frequent occurrence of μην (Egyptian mHn, ‘coiled one’ or ‘serpent spirit’) and μαυ, μου, and μω (Egyptian mw, ‘water’) are also very much inline with the rest of the invocation. The words are grouped into sections as indicated by the half-stop punctuation sign (·) in the original Greek papyrus. And, as with the previous post, I reiterate that there is no way to properly translate these words and what I present is purely speculative.
|ναϊνε||nn – ‘hither’||An invocation (‘hither’) to either Osiris (‘beautiful soul of Abydos’), or Typhon (‘Sky-Agressor’) for protection.|
|βασαναπτατου||ba – ‘soul’; san – ‘beautiful’; AbDw – ‘Abydos’; tw – ‘you’; pt – ‘sky’, ‘heaven’; Adw – ‘agressor’; bsA – ‘protect’; n – ‘to’, ‘we’, ‘us’, ‘our’|
|εαπτου||iaH – ‘moon’; ia – ‘praise’; pA.dw – ‘the mountain’; pt.dw – ‘sky mountain’||Similar to the 100-letter name, praising ‘the mountain’/’sky mountain’. Here the ‘serpent spirit’ (either Typhon or Apep) is mentioned twice. Also, μηνωφαεσμη may have meaning in Greek as a reference to the light of the moon, or a revealing light (as in φαεσιμβροτος, ‘bring light to mortals’).|
|μηνωφαεσμη||mHn – ‘the coiled one’, ‘serpent spirit’; f -‘he/his/him’; as-‘summon’; mi-‘come!’|
|παπτου||pA.pt.dw -‘the sky mountain’|
|μηνωφ||mHn – ‘the coiled one’, ‘serpent spirit’; f-‘he/his/him’|
|αεσιμη||aS – ‘summon’; mi – ‘come!’||‘Come, I summon you!’|
|τραυαπτι||tr – ‘pray’, ‘respect’, ‘worship’; aAw -‘greatly’, ‘great’; pt-‘sky’, ‘heaven’; I-‘O!’, ‘me’||‘O worship-able, great of heaven’|
|πευχρη||pXr – ‘to surround’, ‘enclose’, ‘revolve’, I-‘O!’,’me’||Perhaps, a petition to be enveloped by deity.|
|τραυαρα||tr – ‘pray’, ‘respect’, ‘worship’; aAw -‘greatly’, ‘great’; ra-‘sun’, Re||Praise and reverence to the sun (Re)|
|πτουμεφ||pA.dw – ‘the mountain’; pt.dw-‘sky mountain’; mi-‘come!’; f-‘he/his/him’;||Another invocation (‘come!’) to he of ‘the mountain’|
|μουραι||mw – ‘water’; ri – (enclitic particle); also, could be a reference to μοῖραι , the Fates||‘the waters’, possible a reference (or even intentional pun) to the Moirai , the Greek Fates.|
|ανχουχαφαπτα||an -‘beautiful’, ‘magnificent’; kkw – ‘darkness’; wk– ‘night’; kk – ‘dark’; afA – ‘devour’; pt– ‘sky’, ‘heaven’; A– (enclitic particle)||Perhaps a reference to Typhon as ‘the magnificent devourer of the darkness of the sky’ (compare to γνοφεντινάκτα, ‘Disturber of the Dark’, or νυκταράπτα, ‘Lightning flasher of the night’ )|
|μουρσα||mw – ‘water’; ri – (enclitic particle)||‘the waters’|
|αραμει||ar – ‘ascend’, ‘mount up’, ‘penetrate’; mi – ‘come!’||‘come, ascend!’|
|Ίάω||IAO||IAO Divine Name|
|αθθαραυϊ||A – ‘tread’; a – ‘region’; at = ‘house’, ‘chamber’; dwAt – ‘netherworld’; dwA – ‘worship’,’praise’; r awy – ‘gate’, ‘limit’; rHwy – ‘the Two Companions/Combatants’ (joint epithet of Horus & Set);||Potentially a reference to the joint worship of Horus & Set as ‘the Two Companions/Combatants’, maybe a celebration of their victory over Apep (‘night serpent’?). However, this could also be praise towards the ‘serpent spirit of night’ (Typhon) at the ‘gate of the netherworld.’|
|μηνοκερ||mHn – ‘the coiled one’, ‘serpent spirit’; wk-‘night’; r-‘to’, ‘at’, ‘from’ (preposition)|
|βορο||br -‘eyes’; bw – ‘place’; bAw– ‘power’; souls of dead’, ‘deed of power’; rw – ‘lion’; ra -‘sun’, Re||An invocation to the ‘power of the sun’, potentially, also calling forth ‘the mountain.’|
|πτουμηθ||pA.dw – ‘the mountain’; pt.dw -‘sky mountain’; mi – ‘come!’; t – ‘you’,’your’|
|ατ||At – ‘moment’, ‘striking-power’, ‘time’; at – ‘house’, ‘chamber’||Various possible meanings. The reference to the Festival of Khoiakh is interesting given the narrative of the invocation. Additionally, may be a reference to the violence (‘striking power’, ‘rage’) of the ‘serpent spirit’.|
|ταυϊ||tawy – ‘two lands’ (Egypt)|
|μηνι||mHn – ‘serpent spirit’, I – ‘O!’|
|χαρχαρα||Xar – ‘rage’; kA Hr kA – ‘Festival of Khoiakh’ (celebration of the finding of Osiris’ body); ra – ‘sun’, ‘Re’;|
|πτουμαυ||pA.dw – ‘the mountain’; pt.dw -‘sky mountain’; mw – ‘water’||More references to ‘the mountain’ and ‘water’. Possibly indicative of three regions ‘sky’, ‘mountain’, ‘water’.|
|λαλαψα||“L” sound not found in ancient Egyptian, alternate pronunciation of “R”according to some scholars.||λαλα means to babble or croak in ancient Greek, such as λάλαξ (‘babbler’, ‘croaker’).|
|τραυϊ||tr – ‘pray’, ‘worship god’, ‘respect’; wi – ‘I’, ‘me’||Possibly a petition to deity to be ‘initiated’ into the ‘splendor’ of the ‘nightly waters’. A reference perhaps to the cosmic mysteries. In context, such a petition is a suitable way to end the invocation prior to the vowel formulae that follow.|
|τραυεψε||tr – ‘pray’, ‘worship god’, ‘respect’; wi – ‘I’, ‘me’; bs -‘initiate into’, ‘reveal a secret’, ‘instal’, ‘enter’; bsi – ‘flow forth of water’|
|μαμω||mAA – ‘see’, ‘look upon’; mAa – ‘nightly’, ‘really’; mw -‘water’|
|φορτουχα||fAw-‘magnificence’, ‘splendor’; rT-‘now, but’; wk-‘night’; A-(enclitic particle)|
- For an overview and introduction the magical system see PGM IV. 154-285: A complete Magical System.
- Original greek from Karl Preisendanz (trans. & ed.). Papyri Graecae Magicae Die Greiechischen Zauberpapyri. (Berlin: Verlag und Druck Von B.G. Teubner, 1928).
- Hans Dieter Betz (ed). The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation: Including the Demotic Spells (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1992).
- LSJ, Middle Liddle, Slater, and Autenrieth lexicons referenced from the Perseus Digital Library: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/
- Luis Muñoz Delgado’s LMPG referenced from: http://dge.cchs.csic.es/lmpg/
- See Daniel Ogden. Drakon: Dragon Myth and Serpent Cult in the Greek and Roman Worlds. (Oxford University Press, 2013). Also, see The Eternal Chronos and Teli – Apep: Celestial Serpents and references.
- See Aberamenthô in the PGM and references.
- See PGM II. 64-183, PGM III. 1-164, PGM IV. 286-295, PGM IV. 2145-2240, PGM V. 1-53, PGM XII. 365-75, PDM xiv. 675-604[PGM XIVc. 15-27], PGM XXXVI. 1-34, PGM XXXVI. 69-101, PGM XLVI. 4-8, PGM LVIII. 15-39, PGM CXVI. 1-17.
- See PGM IV 154-285: Phylactery of 100 Letters and references.
- Meni is a Babylonian deity of fate worshipped along with Gad by the early Hebrews in Babylon.
- Both Betz’ and my translation of ἄχρις οὖ κυριεύσης τῆσδε τῆς σκηπτουχίας greatly oversimplify the text (‘edge of your kingdom’, or ‘Were’er you rule this realm’ in Betz); a proper translation would be along the lines of “edges of your scepter-bearing rulership.” Regardless, the idea is that the Apep serpent resides at the edges or fringes of Typhon’s (as “god of gods”, “lord of gods”, and Aberamethou) domain of rulership/influence.
- See glossary in Betz. pp 332.
- Set (Suty) figures as a prominent protector of the solar barque and the soul of Osiris and the deceased. See spells 32, 39, 108 and 111 in the Egyptian Book of the Dead.
- “Then after midday he [Apophis serpent] will turn his eyes agains Re. Then a stoppage will take place in the bark……Then Suty (Seth) will hurl a spear of metal against him and cause him to disgorge all that he swallowed. Then Seth will pit himself agains him and say a spell:’Fall back before the sharp metal that is in my hand. I stand against thee, that the core be true. O Farseer, pray close thy eye and veil thy head, that I may cross. Fall back before me, for I am male. Veil thy head and cool thy upper lip, for if I stay sound thou stayest sound. I am the Great of Magic, son of Nut; my magic power has been given me against thee..'” (Spell 111, Egyptian Book of the Dead)
- See PGM I. 262-347, PDM xiv. 675-694[PGM XIVc. 15-27] , and PGM LIX. 1-15.
- Raymond O. Faulkner. A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian. (Griffight Institute, 1962). Online Resources: http://hieroglyphs.net/0301/cgi/pager.pl?p=16 and Ancient Egyptian Dictionary[pdf]
- See PGM IV 154-285: Phylactery of 100 Letters.